a Reprinted (with permission) from "Boiler Water Limits and Steam Purity Recommendations for Watertube Boilers," American Boiler Manufacturers Association, 1982.. b Actual values within the range reflect the TDS in the feedwater. Higher values are for high solids; lower values are for low solids in the feedwater. c Actual values within the range are directly proportional to the actual value of
Feb 24, 2016 · The procedure is as follows: Add a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution to the cooled sample (< 25°C). If the sample is alkaline, a strong purple color is obtained. Add acetic acid (typically 5%) drop by drop to neutralize the sample, mixing until the color disappears.
May 09, 2016 · Clean steam is a general term that applies to steam that is used in the pharmaceutical industry and medical community in processes where the steam comes into contact with the product and thereby may cause contamination. This is primarily in the areas of steam sterilization, but may also apply where steam is used for humidification…
May 15, 2008 · Cation conductivity monitoring: A reality check. The operators of a new combined-cycle plant being run in two-shift mode (on 16 hours, off 8) had become used to the cation conductivity …
Sep 01, 2019 · With regard to specific conductivity and pH, ammonia (or sometimes an amine or ammonia/amine blend) is the pH-conditioning agent for condensate/feedwater. However, direct pH measurement of high-purity water can be tricky, and algorithms have been developed to calculate pH based on conductivity measurements to provide more accurate results.
steam boiler deaerater air inleakage contamination condensate feedwater heater cooling water air inleakage from conductivity in phosphate treated boilers. Figure 3. pH and conductivity of sodium hydroxide solutions. alkalizing agent is ammonia and the contaminant is sodium chloride. There are four steps to the calculation.
Cation conductivity in good quality condensate is typically less than 0.2 μS/cm. Cation conductivity in the effluent from a properly operated condensate polisher isusu-ally less than 0.07 μS/cm. The theoretical lowest cation conductivity is 0.055 μS/cm at 25ºC, which is the conductivity of pure water.
5 2 Introduction: Purpose of Document and How to Use it IAPWS has issued a series of Technical Guidance Documents for the steam cycle chemistry control of conventional fossil and combined cycle plants.2,3,4,5 The volatile treatment and phosphate/caustic documents include limits for steam purity.
measurement in high pressure boiler cycles is typically dominated by treatment chemicals such as ammonia, phosphates, amines, etc. at ppm concentrations which should be well above the ppb concentrations of any contaminants. Therefore, specific conductivity, often with corroboration by pH, is generally used to monitor and control treatment chemical concentrations. ation (acid) conductivity
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The specific conductance of a sample, measured in microsiemens (µS) or micromhos (µmho), is proportional to the concentration of ions in the sample. When boiler water is carried over in steam, the dissolved solids content of the boiler water contaminates the steam, and steam sample conductivity increases. Measurement of this increase provides a rapid and reasonably accurate method for determining steam …
May 17, 2021 · (3) For medium pressure boilers that use softened or partially demineralized water for replenishing coolant losses, with the steam sample electrical conductivity higher than 1.0 μS/cm, steam quality variations in a wide range are possible due to unsteady metering of alkalinizing agent (ammonia) in the feedwater and significant variations in
Aug 08, 2017 · A contacting conductivity sensor measures the relative concentration of the impurities in the water. The analyzer for that sensor initiates the opening of a blowdown valve when the conductivity becomes too high. Higher purity make-up water is then introduced which lowers the conductivity.
Installing a Boiler Conductivity Electrode . Filming agents prevent scale and corrosion by forming a protective layer on all metal surfaces. How you maintain and operate your steam boiler has a direct effect on the amount of energy, water and chemicals it uses.
Dec 02, 2015 · Most notable is the continued call for the use of a reducing agent (oxygen scavenger) in steam generators that contain no copper alloys, but others abound as well. (cation conductivity ≤ 0
Public Housing Energy Conservation Clearinghouse: ECMs
Sep 02, 2019 · A common problem that's found in boiler water is the presence of high conductivity, which refers to the ability of the water to conduct an electrical current.Controlling the conductivity of water is an essential component of making sure that a boiler functions properly.. A key issue with high conductivity in boiler water …
Jan 29, 2020 · Smelt spouts have a limited lifetime and that is due to thermal stresses but also erosion effect of the smelt flow during an operation. Molten smelt exits the recovery boiler at a temperature as high as 850 °C (1500 °F). So not surprisingly, the smelt spouts are under a lot of thermal stress.
Abstract. Severe corrosion led to an in-service failure of one of the six spouts on a recovery boiler at Cenibra. The failure resulted in a large amount of cooling water entering the boiler and contacting smelt around the spout opening, but fortunately no smelt-water explosion occurred.
day. At that time, all six smelt spouts were relocated to new positions. The spouts, which were supplied by the same boiler man-ufacturer (CBC), are made of carbon steel with no weld over-lay and inserted into the boiler (Fig. 2). All three recovery boilers use the same type and model of spouts, which are es-